Zeta functions, L-series and polylogarithms¶

This section includes the Riemann zeta functions and associated functions pertaining to analytic number theory.

Riemann zeta function¶

zeta()¶

mpmath.functions.zeta(s)

zeta(s) computes the Riemann zeta function, . The Riemann zeta function is defined for by

and for by analytic continuation. It has a pole at .

Examples

Some exact values of the zeta function are:

>>> from mpmath import *
>>> mp.dps = 15; mp.pretty = True
>>> zeta(2)
1.64493406684823
>>> pi**2 / 6
1.64493406684823
>>> zeta(0)
-0.5
>>> zeta(-1)
-0.0833333333333333
>>> zeta(-2)
0.0


zeta() supports arbitrary precision evaluation and complex arguments:

>>> mp.dps = 50
>>> zeta(pi)
1.1762417383825827588721504519380520911697389900217
>>> zeta(1+2j)  # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
(0.5981655697623817367034568491742186771747764868876 -
0.35185474521784529049653859679690026505229177886045j)


The Riemann zeta function has so-called nontrivial zeros on the critical line :

>>> mp.dps = 15
>>> findroot(zeta, 0.5+14j)
(0.5 + 14.1347251417347j)
>>> findroot(zeta, 0.5+21j)
(0.5 + 21.0220396387716j)
>>> findroot(zeta, 0.5+25j)
(0.5 + 25.0108575801457j)


For investigation of the zeta function zeros, the Riemann-Siegel Z-function is often more convenient than working with the Riemann zeta function directly (see siegelz()).

For large positive , rapidly approaches 1:

>>> zeta(30)
1.00000000093133
>>> zeta(100)
1.0
>>> zeta(inf)
1.0


The following series converges and in fact has a simple closed form value:

>>> nsum(lambda k: zeta(k)-1, [2, inf])
1.0


Algorithm

The primary algorithm is Borwein’s algorithm for the Dirichlet eta function. Three separate implementations are used: for general real arguments, general complex arguments, and for integers. The reflection formula is applied to arguments in the negative half-plane. For very large real arguments, either direct summation or the Euler prime product is used.

It should be noted that computation of gets very slow when is far away from the real axis.

References

Hurwitz zeta function¶

hurwitz()¶

mpmath.functions.hurwitz(s, a, derivative=0)

Computes the Hurwitz zeta function

With , this reduces to the ordinary Riemann zeta function. Optionally, hurwitz(s, a, n) computes the -th derivative with respect to ,

Although these series only converge for , the Hurwitz zeta function is defined through analytic continuation for arbitrary complex ( is a pole). The implementation uses Euler-Maclaurin summation along with reflection formulas in some cases when .

The parameter is usually a rational number , and may be specified as such by passing an integer tuple . Evaluation is supported for arbitrary complex , but may be slow and/or inaccurate when for nonrational or when computing derivatives.

Examples

Some basic evaluations:

>>> from mpmath import *
>>> mp.dps = 25; mp.pretty = True
>>> hurwitz(2, 3); -5./4 + pi**2/6
0.3949340668482264364724152
0.3949340668482264364724152
>>> hurwitz(2, (3,4)); pi**2 - 8*catalan
2.541879647671606498397663
2.541879647671606498397663


For positive integer values of , the Hurwitz zeta function can be evaluated using polygamma functions:

>>> hurwitz(4, (1,5)); psi(3, '1/5')/6
625.5408324774542966919938
625.5408324774542966919938


Some Riemann zeta function values:

>>> hurwitz(2)
1.644934066848226436472415
>>> 1-sum((hurwitz(k)-1)/k for k in range(2,85))
0.5772156649015328606065121
>>> +euler
0.5772156649015328606065121
>>> hurwitz(inf)
1.0


Evaluation on the critical line:

>>> findroot(hurwitz, 0.5+14j)
(0.5 + 14.13472514173469379045725j)


A derivative identity; evaluation for :

>>> hurwitz(0, 3+4j, 1)
(-2.675565317808456852310934 + 4.742664438034657928194889j)
>>> loggamma(3+4j) - ln(2*pi)/2
(-2.675565317808456852310934 + 4.742664438034657928194889j)


A high order derivative:

>>> hurwitz(2, 1, 20)
2432902008176640000.000242


A fourth derivative at a complex value:

>>> hurwitz(3+4j, 5.5+2j, 4)
(-0.140075548947797130681075 - 0.3109263360275413251313634j)


Generating a Taylor series at using derivatives:

>>> for k in range(11): print hurwitz(2,1,k)/fac(k), "*", "(s-2)^%i" % k
...
1.644934066848226436472415 * (s-2)^0
-0.9375482543158437537025741 * (s-2)^1
0.9946401171494505117104293 * (s-2)^2
-1.000024300473840810940657 * (s-2)^3
1.000061933072352565457512 * (s-2)^4
-1.000006869443931806408941 * (s-2)^5
1.000000173233769531820592 * (s-2)^6
-0.9999999569989868493432399 * (s-2)^7
0.9999999937218844508684206 * (s-2)^8
-0.9999999996355013916608284 * (s-2)^9
1.000000000004610645020747 * (s-2)^10


Evaluation at zero and for negative integer :

>>> hurwitz(0); zeta(0)
-0.5
-0.5
>>> hurwitz(0, 10)
-9.5
>>> hurwitz(-1); zeta(-1)
-0.08333333333333333333333333
-0.08333333333333333333333333
>>> hurwitz(-2); zeta(-2)
0.0
0.0
>>> hurwitz(-2, (2,3)); mpf(1)/81
0.01234567901234567901234568
0.01234567901234567901234568


Evaluation for negative , with rational and nonrational :

>>> hurwitz(-3+4j, (5,4))
(0.2899236037682695182085988 + 0.06561206166091757973112783j)
>>> hurwitz(-3.25, 1/pi)
-0.0005117269627574430494396877
>>> hurwitz(-3.5, pi(dps=30), 1)
11.15636039044000329471003
>>> hurwitz(-100.5, (8,3))
-4.68162300487989766727122e+77
>>> hurwitz(-10.5, (-8,3))
(-0.01521913704446246609237979 + 29907.72510874248161608216j)
>>> hurwitz(-1000.5, (-8,3))
(1.031911949062334538202567e+1770 + 1.519555750556794218804724e+426j)
>>> hurwitz(-1+j, 3+4j)
(-16.32988355630802510888631 - 22.17706465801374033261383j)
>>> hurwitz(-1+j, 3+4j, 2)
(32.48985276392056641594055 - 51.11604466157397267043655j)
>>> diff(lambda s: hurwitz(s, 3+4j), -1+j, 2)
(32.48985276392056641594055 - 51.11604466157397267043655j)


Zeta-type L-functions¶

altzeta()¶

mpmath.functions.altzeta(s)

Gives the Dirichlet eta function, , also known as the alternating zeta function. This function is defined in analogy with the Riemann zeta function as providing the sum of the alternating series

The eta function, unlike the Riemann zeta function, is an entire function, having a finite value for all complex . The special case gives the value of the alternating harmonic series.

The alternating zeta function may expressed using the Riemann zeta function as . It can also be expressed in terms of the Hurwitz zeta function (hurwitz()), for example using dirichlet() (see documentation for that function).

Examples

Some special values are:

>>> from mpmath import *
>>> mp.dps = 15; mp.pretty = True
>>> altzeta(1)
0.693147180559945
>>> altzeta(0)
0.5
>>> altzeta(-1)
0.25
>>> altzeta(-2)
0.0


An example of a sum that can be computed more accurately and efficiently via altzeta() than via numerical summation:

>>> sum(-(-1)**n / n**2.5 for n in range(1, 100))
0.86720495150398402
>>> altzeta(2.5)
0.867199889012184


At positive even integers, the Dirichlet eta function evaluates to a rational multiple of a power of :

>>> altzeta(2)
0.822467033424113
>>> pi**2/12
0.822467033424113


Like the Riemann zeta function, , approaches 1 as approaches positive infinity, although it does so from below rather than from above:

>>> altzeta(30)
0.999999999068682
>>> altzeta(inf)
1.0
>>> mp.pretty = False
>>> altzeta(1000, rounding='d')
mpf('0.99999999999999989')
>>> altzeta(1000, rounding='u')
mpf('1.0')


References

dirichletl()¶

mpmath.functions.dirichlet(s, chi, derivative=0)

Evaluates the Dirichlet L-function

where is a periodic sequence of length which should be supplied in the form of a list . Strictly, should be a Dirichlet character, but any periodic sequence will work.

For example, dirichlet(s, [1]) gives the ordinary Riemann zeta function and dirichlet(s, [-1,1]) gives the alternating zeta function (Dirichlet eta function).

Also the derivative with respect to (currently only a first derivative) can be evaluated.

Examples

The ordinary Riemann zeta function:

>>> from mpmath import *
>>> mp.dps = 25; mp.pretty = True
>>> dirichlet(3, [1]); zeta(3)
1.202056903159594285399738
1.202056903159594285399738
>>> dirichlet(1, [1])
+inf


The alternating zeta function:

>>> dirichlet(1, [-1,1]); ln(2)
0.6931471805599453094172321
0.6931471805599453094172321


The following defines the Dirichlet beta function and verifies several values of this function:

>>> B = lambda s, d=0: dirichlet(s, [0, 1, 0, -1], d)
>>> B(0); 1./2
0.5
0.5
>>> B(1); pi/4
0.7853981633974483096156609
0.7853981633974483096156609
>>> B(2); +catalan
0.9159655941772190150546035
0.9159655941772190150546035
>>> B(2,1); diff(B, 2)
0.08158073611659279510291217
0.08158073611659279510291217
>>> B(-1,1); 2*catalan/pi
0.5831218080616375602767689
0.5831218080616375602767689
>>> B(0,1); log(gamma(0.25)**2/(2*pi*sqrt(2)))
0.3915943927068367764719453
0.3915943927068367764719454
>>> B(1,1); 0.25*pi*(euler+2*ln2+3*ln(pi)-4*ln(gamma(0.25)))
0.1929013167969124293631898
0.1929013167969124293631898


A custom L-series of period 3:

>>> dirichlet(2, [2,0,1])
0.7059715047839078092146831
>>> 2*nsum(lambda k: (3*k)**-2, [1,inf]) + \
...   nsum(lambda k: (3*k+2)**-2, [0,inf])
0.7059715047839078092146831


primezeta()¶

mpmath.functions.primezeta(s)

Computes the prime zeta function, which is defined in analogy with the Riemann zeta function (zeta()) as

where the sum is taken over all prime numbers . Although this sum only converges for , the function is defined by analytic continuation in the half-plane .

Examples

Arbitrary-precision evaluation for real and complex arguments is supported:

>>> from mpmath import *
>>> mp.dps = 30; mp.pretty = True
>>> primezeta(2)
0.452247420041065498506543364832
>>> primezeta(pi)
0.15483752698840284272036497397
>>> mp.dps = 50
>>> primezeta(3)
0.17476263929944353642311331466570670097541212192615
>>> mp.dps = 20
>>> primezeta(3+4j)
(-0.12085382601645763295 - 0.013370403397787023602j)


The prime zeta function has a logarithmic pole at , with residue equal to the difference of the Mertens and Euler constants:

>>> primezeta(1)
+inf
-0.31571845205389007685
>>> mertens-euler
-0.31571845205389007685


The analytic continuation to is implemented. In this strip the function exhibits very complex behavior; on the unit interval, it has poles at for every squarefree integer :

>>> primezeta(0.5)         # Pole at s = 1/2
(-inf + 3.1415926535897932385j)
>>> primezeta(0.25)
(-1.0416106801757269036 + 0.52359877559829887308j)
>>> primezeta(0.5+10j)
(0.54892423556409790529 + 0.45626803423487934264j)


Although evaluation works in principle for any , it should be noted that the evaluation time increases exponentially as approaches the imaginary axis.

For large , is asymptotic to :

>>> primezeta(inf)
0.0
>>> primezeta(10), mpf(2)**-10
(0.00099360357443698021786, 0.0009765625)
>>> primezeta(1000)
9.3326361850321887899e-302
>>> primezeta(1000+1000j)
(-3.8565440833654995949e-302 - 8.4985390447553234305e-302j)


References

Carl-Erik Froberg, “On the prime zeta function”, BIT 8 (1968), pp. 187-202.

Zeta function zeros¶

zetazero()¶

mpmath.functions.zetazero(n, url='http://www.dtc.umn.edu/~odlyzko/zeta_tables/zeros1')

Returns the -th nontrivial zero of the Riemann zeta function. The zero is computed using findroot(), using a table lookup for the initial point.

The zeros are located on the critical line with real part 1/2:

>>> from mpmath import *
>>> mp.dps = 25; mp.pretty = True
>>> zetazero(1)
(0.5 + 14.13472514173469379045725j)
>>> zetazero(2)
(0.5 + 21.02203963877155499262848j)
>>> zetazero(20)
(0.5 + 77.14484006887480537268266j)


Negative indices give the conjugate zeros ( is undefined):

>>> zetazero(-1)
(0.5 - 14.13472514173469379045725j)


The default table only provides up to 100. For larger up to 100,000, zetazero() will automatically download a table (1.8 MB) from the website of Andrew Odlyzko [1]. This requires a fast connection to the internet. Alternatively, you can supply the url to a custom table. The table should be a file listing the imaginary parts as float literals, separated by line breaks.

Riemann-Siegel functions and Gram points¶

These functions are used for the study of the Riemann zeta function in the critical strip.

siegelz()¶

mpmath.functions.siegelz(t)

Computes the Z-function, also known as the Riemann-Siegel Z function,

where is the Riemann zeta function (zeta()) and where denotes the Riemann-Siegel theta function (see siegeltheta()).

Evaluation is supported for real and complex arguments:

>>> from mpmath import *
>>> mp.dps = 25; mp.pretty = True
>>> siegelz(1)
-0.7363054628673177346778998
>>> siegelz(3+4j)
(-0.1852895764366314976003936 - 0.2773099198055652246992479j)


The Z-function has a Maclaurin expansion:

>>> nprint(chop(taylor(siegelz, 0, 4)))
[-1.46035, 0.0, 2.73588, 0.0, -8.39357]


The Z-function is equal to on the critical line (i.e. for real arguments to ). Its zeros coincide with those of the Riemann zeta function:

>>> findroot(siegelz, 14)
14.13472514173469379045725
>>> findroot(siegelz, 20)
21.02203963877155499262848
>>> findroot(zeta, 0.5+14j)
(0.5 + 14.13472514173469379045725j)
>>> findroot(zeta, 0.5+20j)
(0.5 + 21.02203963877155499262848j)


Since the Z-function is real-valued on the critical line (and unlike analytic), it is useful for investigating the zeros of the Riemann zeta function. For example, one can use a root-finding algorithm based on sign changes:

>>> findroot(siegelz, [100, 200], solver='bisect')
176.4414342977104188888926


To locate roots, Gram points which can be computed by grampoint() are useful. If is positive for two consecutive , then must have a zero between those points:

>>> g10 = grampoint(10)
>>> g11 = grampoint(11)
>>> (-1)**10 * siegelz(g10) > 0
True
>>> (-1)**11 * siegelz(g11) > 0
True
>>> findroot(siegelz, [g10, g11], solver='bisect')
56.44624769706339480436776
>>> g10, g11
(54.67523744685325626632663, 57.54516517954725443703014)


siegeltheta()¶

mpmath.functions.siegeltheta(t)

Computes the Riemann-Siegel theta function,

The Riemann-Siegel theta function is important in providing the phase factor for the Z-function (see siegelz()). Evaluation is supported for real and complex arguments:

>>> from mpmath import *
>>> mp.dps = 25; mp.pretty = True
>>> siegeltheta(0)
0.0
>>> siegeltheta(inf)
+inf
>>> siegeltheta(-inf)
-inf
>>> siegeltheta(1)
-1.767547952812290388302216
>>> siegeltheta(10+0.25j)
(-3.068638039426838572528867 + 0.05804937947429712998395177j)


The Riemann-Siegel theta function has odd symmetry around , two local extreme points and three real roots including 0 (located symmetrically):

>>> nprint(chop(taylor(siegeltheta, 0, 5)))
[0.0, -2.68609, 0.0, 2.69433, 0.0, -6.40218]
>>> findroot(diffun(siegeltheta), 7)
6.28983598883690277966509
>>> findroot(siegeltheta, 20)
17.84559954041086081682634


For large , there is a famous asymptotic formula for , to first order given by:

>>> t = mpf(10**6)
>>> siegeltheta(t)
5488816.353078403444882823
>>> -t*log(2*pi/t)/2-t/2
5488816.745777464310273645


grampoint()¶

mpmath.functions.grampoint(n)

Gives the -th Gram point , defined as the solution to the equation where is the Riemann-Siegel theta function (siegeltheta()).

The first few Gram points are:

>>> from mpmath import *
>>> mp.dps = 25; mp.pretty = True
>>> grampoint(0)
17.84559954041086081682634
>>> grampoint(1)
23.17028270124630927899664
>>> grampoint(2)
27.67018221781633796093849
>>> grampoint(3)
31.71797995476405317955149


Checking the definition:

>>> siegeltheta(grampoint(3))
9.42477796076937971538793
>>> 3*pi
9.42477796076937971538793


A large Gram point:

>>> grampoint(10**10)
3293531632.728335454561153


Gram points are useful when studying the Z-function (siegelz()). See the documentation of that function for additional examples.

grampoint() can solve the defining equation for nonintegral . There is a fixed point where :

>>> findroot(lambda x: grampoint(x) - x, 10000)
9146.698193171459265866198


References

Stieltjes constants¶

stieltjes()¶

mpmath.functions.stieltjes(n, a=1)

For a nonnegative integer , stieltjes(n) computes the -th Stieltjes constant , defined as the -th coefficient in the Laurent series expansion of the Riemann zeta function around the pole at . That is, we have:

More generally, stieltjes(n, a) gives the corresponding coefficient for the Hurwitz zeta function (with ).

Examples

The zeroth Stieltjes constant is just Euler’s constant :

>>> from mpmath import *
>>> mp.dps = 15; mp.pretty = True
>>> stieltjes(0)
0.577215664901533


Some more values are:

>>> stieltjes(1)
-0.0728158454836767
>>> stieltjes(10)
0.000205332814909065
>>> stieltjes(30)
0.00355772885557316
>>> stieltjes(1000)
-1.57095384420474e+486
>>> stieltjes(2000)
2.680424678918e+1109
>>> stieltjes(1, 2.5)
-0.23747539175716


An alternative way to compute :

>>> diff(extradps(25)(lambda x: 1/(x-1) - zeta(x)), 1)
-0.0728158454836767


stieltjes() supports arbitrary precision evaluation:

>>> mp.dps = 50
>>> stieltjes(2)
-0.0096903631928723184845303860352125293590658061013408


Algorithm

stieltjes() numerically evaluates the integral in the following representation due to Ainsworth, Howell and Coffey [1], [2]:

For some reference values with , see e.g. [4].

References

1. O. R. Ainsworth & L. W. Howell, “An integral representation of the generalized Euler-Mascheroni constants”, NASA Technical Paper 2456 (1985), http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19850014994_1985014994.pdf
2. M. W. Coffey, “The Stieltjes constants, their relation to the coefficients, and representation of the Hurwitz zeta function”, arXiv:0706.0343v1 http://arxiv.org/abs/0706.0343
3. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/StieltjesConstants.html
4. http://pi.lacim.uqam.ca/piDATA/stieltjesgamma.txt

Polylogarithms¶

polylog()¶

mpmath.functions.polylog(s, z)

Computes the polylogarithm, defined by the sum

This series is convergent only for , so elsewhere the analytic continuation is implied.

The polylogarithm should not be confused with the logarithmic integral (also denoted by Li or li), which is implemented as li().

Examples

The polylogarithm satisfies a huge number of functional identities. A sample of polylogarithm evaluations is shown below:

>>> from mpmath import *
>>> mp.dps = 15; mp.pretty = True
>>> polylog(1,0.5), log(2)
(0.693147180559945, 0.693147180559945)
>>> polylog(2,0.5), (pi**2-6*log(2)**2)/12
(0.582240526465012, 0.582240526465012)
>>> polylog(2,-phi), -log(phi)**2-pi**2/10
(-1.21852526068613, -1.21852526068613)
>>> polylog(3,0.5), 7*zeta(3)/8-pi**2*log(2)/12+log(2)**3/6
(0.53721319360804, 0.53721319360804)


polylog() can evaluate the analytic continuation of the polylogarithm when is an integer:

>>> polylog(2, 10)
(0.536301287357863 - 7.23378441241546j)
>>> polylog(2, -10)
-4.1982778868581
>>> polylog(2, 10j)
(-3.05968879432873 + 3.71678149306807j)
>>> polylog(-2, 10)
-0.150891632373114
>>> polylog(-2, -10)
0.067618332081142
>>> polylog(-2, 10j)
(0.0384353698579347 + 0.0912451798066779j)


Some more examples, with arguments on the unit circle (note that the series definition cannot be used for computation here):

>>> polylog(2,j)
(-0.205616758356028 + 0.915965594177219j)
>>> j*catalan-pi**2/48
(-0.205616758356028 + 0.915965594177219j)
>>> polylog(3,exp(2*pi*j/3))
(-0.534247512515375 + 0.765587078525922j)
>>> -4*zeta(3)/9 + 2*j*pi**3/81
(-0.534247512515375 + 0.765587078525921j)


Polylogarithms of different order are related by integration and differentiation:

>>> s, z = 3, 0.5
>>> polylog(s+1, z)
0.517479061673899
>>> quad(lambda t: polylog(s,t)/t, [0, z])
0.517479061673899
>>> z*diff(lambda t: polylog(s+2,t), z)
0.517479061673899


Taylor series expansions around are:

>>> for n in range(-3, 4):
...     nprint(taylor(lambda x: polylog(n,x), 0, 5))
...
[0.0, 1.0, 8.0, 27.0, 64.0, 125.0]
[0.0, 1.0, 4.0, 9.0, 16.0, 25.0]
[0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0]
[0.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0]
[0.0, 1.0, 0.5, 0.333333, 0.25, 0.2]
[0.0, 1.0, 0.25, 0.111111, 6.25e-2, 4.0e-2]
[0.0, 1.0, 0.125, 3.7037e-2, 1.5625e-2, 8.0e-3]


The series defining the polylogarithm is simultaneously a Taylor series and an L-series. For certain values of , the polylogarithm reduces to a pure zeta function:

>>> polylog(pi, 1), zeta(pi)
(1.17624173838258, 1.17624173838258)
>>> polylog(pi, -1), -altzeta(pi)
(-0.909670702980385, -0.909670702980385)


Evaluation for arbitrary, nonintegral is supported for within the unit circle:

>>> polylog(3+4j, 0.25)
(0.24258605789446 - 0.00222938275488344j)
>>> nsum(lambda k: 0.25**k / k**(3+4j), [1,inf])
(0.24258605789446 - 0.00222938275488344j)


It is also currently supported outside of the unit circle for not too large in magnitude:

>>> polylog(1+j, 20+40j)
(-7.1421172179728 - 3.92726697721369j)
>>> polylog(1+j, 200+400j)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
NotImplementedError: polylog for arbitrary s and z


References

1. Richard Crandall, “Note on fast polylogarithm computation” http://people.reed.edu/~crandall/papers/Polylog.pdf
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polylogarithm
3. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Polylogarithm.html

Clausen functions¶

clsin()¶

mpmath.functions.clsin(s, z)

Computes the Clausen sine function, defined formally by the series

The special case (i.e. clsin(2,z)) is the classical “Clausen function”. More generally, the Clausen function is defined for complex and , even when the series does not converge. The Clausen function is related to the polylogarithm (polylog()) as

and this representation can be taken to provide the analytic continuation of the series. The complementary function clcos() gives the corresponding cosine sum.

Examples

Evaluation for arbitrarily chosen and :

>>> from mpmath import *
>>> mp.dps = 25; mp.pretty = True
>>> s, z = 3, 4
>>> clsin(s, z); nsum(lambda k: sin(z*k)/k**s, [1,inf])
-0.6533010136329338746275795
-0.6533010136329338746275795


Using instead of gives an alternating series:

>>> clsin(s, z+pi)
0.8860032351260589402871624
>>> nsum(lambda k: (-1)**k*sin(z*k)/k**s, [1,inf])
0.8860032351260589402871624


With , the sum can be expressed in closed form using elementary functions:

>>> z = 1 + sqrt(3)
>>> clsin(1, z)
0.2047709230104579724675985
>>> chop((log(1-exp(-j*z)) - log(1-exp(j*z)))/(2*j))
0.2047709230104579724675985
>>> nsum(lambda k: sin(k*z)/k, [1,inf])
0.2047709230104579724675985


The classical Clausen function gives the value of the integral for :

>>> cl2 = lambda t: clsin(2, t)
>>> cl2(3.5)
-0.2465045302347694216534255
>>> -quad(lambda x: ln(2*sin(0.5*x)), [0, 3.5])
-0.2465045302347694216534255


This function is symmetric about with zeros and extreme points:

>>> cl2(0); cl2(pi/3); chop(cl2(pi)); cl2(5*pi/3); chop(cl2(2*pi))
0.0
1.014941606409653625021203
0.0
-1.014941606409653625021203
0.0


Catalan’s constant is a special value:

>>> cl2(pi/2)
0.9159655941772190150546035
>>> +catalan
0.9159655941772190150546035


The Clausen sine function can be expressed in closed form when is an odd integer (becoming zero when < 0):

>>> z = 1 + sqrt(2)
>>> clsin(1, z); (pi-z)/2
0.3636895456083490948304773
0.3636895456083490948304773
>>> clsin(3, z); pi**2/6*z - pi*z**2/4 + z**3/12
0.5661751584451144991707161
0.5661751584451144991707161
>>> clsin(-1, z)
0.0
>>> clsin(-3, z)
0.0


It can also be expressed in closed form for even integer , providing a finite sum for series such as :

>>> z = 1 + sqrt(2)
>>> clsin(0, z)
0.1903105029507513881275865
>>> cot(z/2)/2
0.1903105029507513881275865
>>> clsin(-2, z)
-0.1089406163841548817581392
>>> -cot(z/2)*csc(z/2)**2/4
-0.1089406163841548817581392


Evaluation for complex , in a nonconvergent case:

>>> s, z = -1-j, 1+2j
>>> clsin(s, z)
(-0.593079480117379002516034 + 0.9038644233367868273362446j)
>>> extraprec(20)(nsum)(lambda k: sin(k*z)/k**s, [1,inf])
(-0.593079480117379002516034 + 0.9038644233367868273362446j)


clcos()¶

mpmath.functions.clcos(s, z)

Computes the Clausen cosine function, defined formally by the series

This function is complementary to the Clausen sine function clsin(). In terms of the polylogarithm,

Examples

Evaluation for arbitrarily chosen and :

>>> from mpmath import *
>>> mp.dps = 25; mp.pretty = True
>>> s, z = 3, 4
>>> clcos(s, z); nsum(lambda k: cos(z*k)/k**s, [1,inf])
-0.6518926267198991308332759
-0.6518926267198991308332759


Using instead of gives an alternating series:

>>> s, z = 3, 0.5
>>> clcos(s, z+pi)
-0.8155530586502260817855618
>>> nsum(lambda k: (-1)**k*cos(z*k)/k**s, [1,inf])
-0.8155530586502260817855618


With , the sum can be expressed in closed form using elementary functions:

>>> z = 1 + sqrt(3)
>>> clcos(1, z)
-0.6720334373369714849797918
>>> chop(-0.5*(log(1-exp(j*z))+log(1-exp(-j*z))))
-0.6720334373369714849797918
>>> -log(abs(2*sin(0.5*z)))    # Equivalent to above when z is real
-0.6720334373369714849797918
>>> nsum(lambda k: cos(k*z)/k, [1,inf])
-0.6720334373369714849797918


It can also be expressed in closed form when is an even integer. For example,

>>> clcos(2,z)
-0.7805359025135583118863007
>>> pi**2/6 - pi*z/2 + z**2/4
-0.7805359025135583118863007


The case gives the renormalized sum of (which happens to be the same for any value of ):

>>> clcos(0, z)
-0.5
>>> nsum(lambda k: cos(k*z), [1,inf])
-0.5


Also the sums

and

for higher integer powers can be done in closed form. They are zero when is positive and even ( negative and even):

>>> clcos(-1, z); 1/(2*cos(z)-2)
-0.2607829375240542480694126
-0.2607829375240542480694126
>>> clcos(-3, z); (2+cos(z))*csc(z/2)**4/8
0.1472635054979944390848006
0.1472635054979944390848006
>>> clcos(-2, z); clcos(-4, z); clcos(-6, z)
0.0
0.0
0.0


With , the series reduces to that of the Riemann zeta function (more generally, if , it is a finite sum over Hurwitz zeta function values):

>>> clcos(2.5, 0); zeta(2.5)
1.34148725725091717975677
1.34148725725091717975677
>>> clcos(2.5, pi); -altzeta(2.5)
-0.8671998890121841381913472
-0.8671998890121841381913472


Evaluation for complex , in a nonconvergent case:

>>> s, z = -1-j, 1+2j
>>> clcos(s, z)
(0.9407430121562251476136807 + 0.715826296033590204557054j)
>>> extraprec(15)(nsum)(lambda k: cos(k*z)/k**s, [1,inf])
(0.9407430121562251476136807 + 0.7158262960335902045570541j)


Polyexponentials¶

polyexp()¶

mpmath.functions.polyexp(s, z)

Evaluates the polyexponential function, defined for arbitrary complex , by the series

is constructed from the exponential function analogously to how the polylogarithm is constructed from the ordinary logarithm; as a function of (with fixed), is an L-series It is an entire function of both and .

The polyexponential function provides a generalization of the Bell polynomials (see bell()) to noninteger orders . In terms of the Bell polynomials,

Note that and are identical if is a nonzero integer, but not otherwise. In particular, they differ at .

Examples

Evaluating a series:

>>> from mpmath import *
>>> mp.dps = 25; mp.pretty = True
>>> nsum(lambda k: sqrt(k)/fac(k), [1,inf])
2.101755547733791780315904
>>> polyexp(0.5,1)
2.101755547733791780315904


Evaluation for arbitrary arguments:

>>> polyexp(-3-4j, 2.5+2j)
(2.351660261190434618268706 + 1.202966666673054671364215j)


Evaluation is accurate for tiny function values:

>>> polyexp(4, -100)
3.499471750566824369520223e-36


If is a nonpositive integer, reduces to a special instance of the hypergeometric function :

>>> n = 3
>>> x = pi
>>> polyexp(-n,x)
4.042192318847986561771779
>>> x*hyper([1]*(n+1), [2]*(n+1), x)
4.042192318847986561771779